Articles and Case Studies

Other Reading

"The ultimate most holy form of theory is action.” -- Nikos Kazantzakis


Developing Sustainability, Developing the Self: An Integral Approach to International and Community Development.

By Gail Hochachka

Developing Sustainability, Developing Self


This book explores former and current approaches to international development, integrating previous practices to move into new arenas of action and inquiry. It suggests that development involves personal, collective and systemic transformation, and that to engage effectively in this requires a broader and deeper understanding of development. Broader in terms of including qualitative and interior needs of humans, and deeper to more adequately understand individual and collective transformation itself. The booklet is written for anyone familiar with international development, community development, and/or social change in general. Included is an introduction and overview of Integral Theory for those who are not familiar with it. The last half of the booklet provides an example of an Integral approach in practice in El Salvador.

Please use the following citation when referencing this work: Hochachka, G. 2005. Developing Sustainability, Developing the Self. An Integral Approach to International and Community Development. A publication of Drishti-Centre for Integral Action with funding from IDRC. Retrieved from

Executive Summary, Table of Contents

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5, Epilogue, Appendix, Endnotes, Bibliograhy

Desarrollando la Sustentabilidad, Desarrollando el Ser: Un Enfoque Integral al Desarrollo Internacional y Comunitario

Desarrollando la Sustentabilidad, Desarrollando el Ser

Por Gail Hochachka

Este libro explora los enfoques pasados y actuales del desarrollo, integrando prácticas previas para avanzar hacia nuevas áreas de acción e investigación. Esto sugiere que el desarrollo incluye la transformación personal, colectiva y sistemática y que para comprometerse de manera efectiva en esto se requiere un entendimiento más amplio y profundo del desarrollo — más amplio en términos de las necesidades cualitativas e internas de los seres humanos, y más profundo para poder comprender de manera más adecuada la transformación individual y colectiva.


Capitulo Uno

Capitulo Dos

Capitulo Tres

Capitulo Cuatro

Capitulo Cinco

Articles and Case Studies

Climate Resilience Photo Journal

Written in Spanish and English, this photo journal describes how this project intended to explore ways to integrate the human dimensions into climate change adaptation and community resilience, shares the photo voice methodology used, and includes the photos taken by community researchers in the headwaters of the River Lempa watershed of El Salvador.

This was a research project funded by Canada's International Development Research Centre and carried out in partnership with Centro Bartolome de las Casas in El Salvador.

Hochachka, Madrigal, Flores, Cáceres, Tenney, Núñez, Tejeda and Delgado. 2012. Climate Resilience Photo Journal: Climate Change Adaptation and Human Development. A shared publication of Drishti and Centro Bartolomé de Las Casas.

Hochachka, Madrigal, Flores, Cáceres, Tenney, Núñez, Tejeda and Delgado. 2012. Resiliencia Clima Libro de Fotos: Adaptación al Cambio Climático y Desarrollo Humano. Una publicación compartida por Drishti y Centro Bartolomé de Las Casas.


Climate Resilience Field Guide: Photo Voice in Climate Change Adaptation Engagement.

This field-guide is designed to work in association with the above photo journal and provides, in a sense, the 'back end' to that 'front end' photo journal. It includes an overview of the project rationale and description of context and communities, and then primarily focuses on the use of photo voice in climate change adaptation engagement. The case is made that when local people use a methodology like photo voice, they are more able to learn about a complex issue like climate change from their own perspectives, meaning-making frames, and lived realities, which in turn inspires greater ownership and commitment to action.

Hochachka, Madrigal, Flores, Cáceres, Tenney, Núñez, Tejeda and Delgado. 2012. Climate
Resilience: A Field-Guide for Photo Voice in Climate Change Adaptation Engagement. A
shared publication of Drishti and Centro Bartolomé de Las Casas.


Towards an Integral Monitoring and Evaluation

By Gail Hochachka and Sandra Thomson

A research project funded by Canada's International Development Research Centre and carried out in partnership with the Peruvian NGO Asociacion para la Conservacion de la Cuenca Amazonica.

This is uploaded in three sections: Part One Towards an Integral Monitoring and Evaluation contextualizes the issue, Part Two Integral Action Research in Peru describes our research methodologies, and Part Three Integral M&E Framework synthesizes results into a replicable framework. Watch here for a shorter, more succinct piece on Integral Monitoring and Evaluation coming soon.

Part One Towards an Integral Monitoring and Evaluation

Part Two Integral Action Research in Peru

Figures for Part Two

Part Three Integral M&E Framework

Please use the following citation when referencing this work: Hochachka, G. and S. Thomson. 2009. Towards an Integral Monitoring and Evaluation. A publication of Drishti-Centre for Integral Action with funding from IDRC. Retrieved from


Case Studies on an Integral Approach to International Development

By Gail Hochachka


Overview and Synthesis

Peru english

The Interiority of Community Resilience in the Andes of Peru Institute for Action and Progress (INAPRO)

Peru spanish

La Interioridad de la Resiliencia Comunitaria en los Andes de Perú
Instituto para la Acción y el Progreso (INAPRO)

CBC english

Integral Community Development in Post-war El Salvador. Centro Bartolomé de las Casas.

CBC espanol

Desarrollo Comunitario Integral en El Salvador de la posguerra. Centro Bartolomé de las Casas.

Educate Girls Globally

Harnessing Human Potential for True Social Change. Educate Girls Globally

ISAPSO EO Ethiopia

Personal and Economic Development as a Response to HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia, a View from the Grassroots


Developing Leadership From Within: The Use Of The Integral Framework In UNDP’s Leadership For Results Programme To Reverse the HIV/AIDS Epidemic


Integrando la Interiorización en el Desarrollo Comunitario

By Gail Hochachka (Spanish translation of article primarily published in World Futures Journal of General Evolution, special edition on integral ecology.)

Este artículo explora el desarrollo integral comunitario; un enfoque que integra lasnecesidades materiales (así como el crecimiento económico, administración de recursos y estructuras para la toma de decisiones) y las necesidades interiores(tales como el bienestar espiritual y psicológico). La inclusión de la “interiorización” en el desarrollo es exclusiva para las prácticas de desarrolloconvencionales y alternativas y el análisis sugiere que es necesario para la sostenibilidad. El desarrollo integral comunitario trabaja en tres campos deacción/aplicación, diálogo/proceso, auto-crecimiento/reflexión y reconoce la importancia de los cambios ante los puntos de vista. Utilizando este enfoque enun caso de estudio en El Salvador, los resultados de la investigación mostraron una creciente colaboración y auto-reflexión en donde los objetivos económicos semezclaban con la preocupación por la igualdad y por el medio ambiente.

Integrando Interiorización


Integral International Development Gathering, France 2006

France Meeting Synthesis

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Appendix 3

Appendix 4


Integral Nursing in Canada

By James Baye

Presently, for a variety of reasons, the Canadian health care system is in a state of progressing flux and increasing disorder. Nursing, as a significant part of the health care system, is greatly affected by this situation both extrinsically and intrinsically. As the world becomes exponentially complex, nursing and health care need to move beyond the limited scopes which their present models of ideology, management and development possess. The focus of this article is to introduce the Integral framework and its application to nursing and health care. The Integral framework allows a meta-perspective on all theories and methodologies, providing a place for all aspects of reality to exist, demonstrating how they connect to each other, and allowing the most effective action to ensue with the utmost of integrity and truth. By utilizing the reports from R.J. Romanow and the Canadian Nursing Advisory Committee, as well as other specific examples to demonstrate the use of the Integral framework, this article will provide an initial understanding and ability to put into practice the brilliance of the Integral framework.

Nursing in Canada w Integral


One Sky Integral Organizational Assessment

By Sandra Thomson and Gail Hochachka

The mission of One Sky – Canadian Institute for Sustainable Living is “to promote sustainable living globally”. This modest mission statement in no way reflects One Sky’s desire to push the boundaries of grassroots environmental activism. Since its creation, One Sky has been pioneering a way of working that emulates natural systems and creates conditions for emergent capacity and leadership, applying cutting edge business models to non-profit work for social change (such as Senge’s (1990) work on learning organizations; Csikszentmihalyi’s (2003) on organizational flow; and team-net organizational models, and also drawing upon the experience of international social movements, such as the multiple leadership concepts used by populist groups in Central American civil wars. With this organizational assessment, we sought to evaluate in what areas One Sky is effective and why, and make recommendations as to how it could be more effective; where does One Sky flow and what are the barriers to that flow? We hope that by more explicitly understanding what is working/not working and why, incorporating new understanding and processes emerging from a variety of disciplines, and setting strategic goals around the implementation of its approach, One Sky will become a leading organization in the international development field.

One Sky Integral Assessment


Integral Assessment Methodology

By Sandra Thomson and Gail Hochachka

This short discussion paper consists of reflections garnered from Drishti’s experience doing an integral organizational assessment of One Sky—The Canadian Institute of Sustainable Living. This template will be revised and expanded with future experience into a collection of methodologies for carrying out integral assessments with other organizations and groups. An integral assessment can be useful for many reasons. The process engages people in an objective, inter-active and reflective analysis of what makes their organization effective and special.

Integral Assessment Methodology


Other Reading


Wilber, K. (2000) Integral Psychology. Consciousness, Spirit, Psychology, Therapy. (Boston: Shambala)

Wilber, K. (1999) "An Approach to Integral Psychology". The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1999, vol. 31, no. 2: 109 – 136

Wilber, K. (1996) A Brief History of Everything. (Boston: Shambala)

Wilber, K. (1995) Sex, Ecology, Spirituality. The Spirit of Evolution. (Boston and London: Shambala)

Teigas, Demetrius. (1995) Knowledge and Hermeneutic Understanding. A Study of the Habermas-Gadamer Debate. (London and Toronto: Associated University Press), pp. 3-22

Marcuse, Herbert. 1964. One Dimensional Man. Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Societies. (Boston: Beacon Press)

Weber, Max. (1963) The Sociology of Religion. (Methuen)

Kegan, R. 1982. The Evolving Self CambridgeMA: Harvard University Press;

Kegan, R. (1994) In Over our Heads: The Mental Demands of Modern Life. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press;

Loevinger, J. (1976). Ego Development: Conception and Theories. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass;

Loevinger, J & Wessler, E. (1978). Measuring Ego Development, Vols 1 and 2. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass;

Piaget J, (1966). The Psychology of the Child, Harper Torchbooks;

Torbert, W R The Power of Balance: Transforming self, society and scientific inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage (1991). William B. Torbert’s work on action inquiry;

Fisher, Dalmar, David Rooke and Bill Torbert. Personal and Organizational Transformations through action inquiry. Revised Edition 2000;

Beck, Don E. and Cowen, Christopher. Spiral Dynamics: Mastering Values, Leadership and Change (Malden, MA: Blackwell Inc., 1996).